Модальные глаголы и их заменители для IELTS, TOEFL и других международных экзаменов
Когда я проверяю эссе, одна из самых распространенных ошибок моих студентов – это когда высказывание звучит нереалистично. К примеру: “люди с высшим образованием получают более высокую зарплату”. Правда ли это? Конечно же нет, потому что не все люди с высшим образованием получают более высокую зарплату. Следовательно, при написании сочинений для международных экзаменов, таких как IELTS, TOEFL и т.д. добавляем модальные глаголы или их заменители, чтобы не звучать категорично и абсолютно.
1. Can – можно, может
Smoking leads to serious diseases such as lung cancer.
Smoking can lead to serious diseases such as lung cancer.
Books are not always accurate and often contradict what we find in the real world.
Books are not always accurate and often contradict what we can find in the real world.
International students get world-class education at affordable fees.
International students can get world-class education at affordable fees.
Разница Can и Could
Exercise can help to reduce stress. (a general truth)
Exercise could help to reduce stress. (possibility)
2. May – может, возможно
Some people find learning languages boring.
Some people may find learning languages boring.
Banning fast food in school canteens encourages healthy eating.
Banning fast food in school canteens may encourage healthy eating.
3. Might – может, возможно, могли бы, мог бы
People eat fast food because they don’t have time to cook.
One of the reasons why people eat fast food might be a lack of time to cook.
4. Would – бы
If higher education were free, many more young people would go to university.
Had I not developed close relationships with my peers, I would not be happy with my career today.
5. Must (strong obligation, a law) – должен, должно, должны
Discrimination must be stopped.
I do not blame restaurant owners for this because I know they must pay a lot for labo(u)r, real estate, and utilities.
6. Should (weak obligation what is ideal or desired) – следует, должно быть
There should be more public schools.
All young people should be given the opportunity to go to university.
As technology develops and ideas about learning change, there are many different opinions about whether it should still be mandatory for students to attend classes.
7. Ought to – следует, обязан, надобно, надлежит
People in politics ought to take responsibility for the whole nation.
Investors and taxpayers ought to know.
8. Tend to – склонны, имеют тенденцию
Some research shows that people who eat avocados tend to be healthier.
People tend to trust what their peers recommend.
In the near future, the world market for petrol and ethanol fuel will tend to increase.
9. Be likely to – скорее всего, вероятнее всего
Students are likely to talk to their classmates during lectures.
The pressure on employment and household budgets is likely to persist.
Western Europe is likely to focus on improved marketing, innovation, and technology to remain competitive.
10. Supposed to – предполагается, предположительно, должно быть
Those articles are supposed to start a revolution in physics.
Headlines are supposed to grab the reader’s interest.
11. Be prone to – подвержен, склонен
The agricultural sector is prone to anti-competitive practices in many developing countries.
Software is a very competitive business, prone to natural monopolies.
12. Be exposed to – подвержен
Throughout our lives, each of us is exposed to many negative influences.
Greaves instead believes that when a baby is exposed to infections during its first year, its immune system is strengthened.
13. Be vulnerable to – подвержен
We have to concentrate fundamentally on those most vulnerable to danger and poverty.
Children and teenagers aren’t the only ones who can be vulnerable to video game addiction.
14. Be subjected to – быть подвержен
No child should be subjected to violence.
Every citizen shall have the right to reside and travel freely in any part of the territory of the State and shall not be subjected to deportation.
15. Seem to – кажется вероятным
It seems that many individuals simply do not care about how much damage to the environment they do by driving their cars.
While at first glance he seemed like a perfect addition to our organization, his techniques were wholly out of step with the modern world.
People these days seem to be really into endurance sports like long-distance running, which are incredibly beneficial for our health.
16. Appear to – оказывается, похоже, по-видимому
Our hormones appear to influence our musical preferences.
These carrots and sticks appear to work.
This may appear somewhat shallow, but in today’s competitive academic environment, it is absolutely necessary for people to distinguish themselves.
17. Apparently – по-видимому, скорее всего
Chronic diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and heart disease, are apparently defeated.
The early Greeks bathed for aesthetic reasons and apparently did not use soap.